Communication Protocols


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Communication Protocols

Communication and Protocols

Line-Protocols (Layer 1)

Vectored DSL to the Rescue
on OSP Magazine by George Ginis, Mehdi Mohseni, and John M. Cioffi

Very Popular Internet Protocols (Layer 4~7)

FTP - File Transfer Protocol* (TCP:20-21)

HTML - HyperText Markup Language not a protocol, but a formatting language!

HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol* current ver. 1.1 (TCP:80)

SSH - Secure Shell Host Protocol* text-oriented encrypted terminal (TCP:22)
SFTP - Secure FTP* and SCP - Secure CoPy* also run over SSH.

POP3 - Post Office Protocol* (TCP:110)

RDP - Remote Desktop Protocol* also used by Terminal Server, by Microsoft (TCP:3389)

RFB - Remote Frame Buffer Protocol* used by VNC, a graphical terminal (TCP:5900)

SMB/CIFS - Server Message Block / Common Internet File System Protocol*

SMTP - Simple Message Transfer Protocol (TCP:25)

Well-Known Protocols

Modem or VPN-Connection Troubleshooting

List of RAS/DUN error codes (in Windows Remote Access Service / Dial-Up Networking)

Internet Access Providers

AUSTRIA: Line Providers
ADSL from TKA ("AON") and alternative providers with non-unbundled local loops
Consumer Equipment: Thomson (formerly Alcatel) SpeedTouch 510, 546, 585 (external splitter box), Pirelli (for VDSL)
Protocols: G.dmt/G.992.1, PPPoA (VPI=8 VCI=48)
Well-known customer IP ranges: 62.46/15, 80.120/14, 88.116/15, 91.112/14, 93.82/15, 188.20/14, 212.183.0/17, 213.33/17
Well-known server IP ranges: 195.3.96/?
Unknown-purpose IP ranges: 143.161/16, 145.241/16, 157.247/16, 178.188/14
IPv6 ranges: 2001:890::/32
DNS servers:, (
SMTP servers: (for low-cost customers), (for high-paying customers; always requires SMTP-auth)

ADSL from FastDSL
DNS servers: (, (

ADSL from Inode, Chello or Telekabel aka UPC
new (?) DNS servers (, (
old well-known DNS servers,
IP ranges (Inode): 62.99.128/17, 81.223/16, 83.64/15, 85.124/14, 195.58.160/19, 212.41.224/19, 213.229.0/18
IP ranges (Chello): 62.178/16, 80.108/15, 84.112/13, 212.17.64/18, 212.186/16, 213.46/15
DNS servers: (, (
SMTP servers: (for Inode customers), (for UPC/Telekabel customers)

ADSL from Tele2 (formerly "UTA") with unbundled local loop
Consumer Equipment: Thomson Speedtouch 780iWL, Tilgin Vood 422_A (integrated splitter)
Protocols: supposedly ADSL2+ but exact line protocol unknown, PPPoE/RFC2516 (VPI=8 VCI=35 MTU=1492)

Well-known customer IP ranges: 62.116.0/17 (except 62.116.32/19 which is EUnet), 78.142.128/18, 86.59.0/17, 188.118.192/18, 213.235.192/18
IPv6 ranges: 2001:858::/32

AUSTRIA: Mobile Providers
GPRS/UMTS/HSDPA from TKA ("A1", also re-branded as "Bob")
APN="business.gprsinternet", User="" (also: "" or ""), pass="ppp"
DNS servers: (, (; unverified), (
SMTP servers: (requires no SMTP-auth)

APN="", User="", pass=""
SMTP servers: (requires no SMTP-auth)

GPRS/UMTS/HSDPA from Orange (formerly "ONE", also re-branded as "Yess")
APN="" OR "fullspeed", User="ppp", pass="ppp"
APN="", User=anything, pass=anything
DNS servers: (, (, (

GPRS/UMTS/HSDPA from T-Mobile (formerly "max" and "Telering")
APN="gprsinternet" OR "business.gprsinternet", User="t-mobile", pass="tm"
APN="WEB" (for Telering customers), User="", pass="web"
SMTP servers: (often unreachable or not working)

A good user forum can be found on

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