Beep Codes for Award and Phoenix PC BIOS
1 short beep: Normal - beginning boot
2 short beeps: CMOS error
1 LONG, 1 short beep: DRAM or Mainboard error
1 LONG, 2 short beeps: Video card error
1 LONG, 3 short beeps: Keyboard error, or video card error
1 LONG, 9 short beeps: ROM error
1 LONG beep repeating: DRAM not installed correctly, bad memory, or incompatible
1 short beep repeating: Bad power supply
Beep Codes for AMI PC BIOS
1 short beep: system RAM refresh failure
2 / 3 short beeps: memory test error (in first 64 kB / rest of memory)
4 short beeps: system timer error
5 short beeps: CPU failed - CPU or possibly mainboard defective
6 short beeps: keyboard controller error
7 short beeps: processor VM exception error - CPU possibly defective
8 short beeps: video card error
9 short beeps: ROM checksum error
10 short beeps: CMOS shutdown register error
11 short beeps: cache memory test error
1 LONG, 3 short beeps: memory test failure
1 LONG, 8 short beeps: display test failure
2 LONG, 2 short beeps: floppy controller failure
2 LONG, 4 short beeps: hardware component failure
Even more detailed lists of beep codes on: The Computer Technology Documentation Project.
LED Blink Codes for Buffalo LinkStation
empirical for Buffalo LinkStation Pro Duo II, middle red LED
6 short RED blinks: boot error / drive or partition failure, looking for an TFTP server at 192.168.11.1
1 or 2 short RED blinks: DRAM defective
1 LONG, 1 short RED blinks: system fan missing, defective or too slow.
1 LONG, 6 short RED blinks: operational, but RAID error / single drive defective.
2 LONG, 2 short RED blinks: mount error, changed disk needs formatting.
2 LONG, 3 short RED blinks: hard drive or RAID signatures defective.
1 LONG ORANGE blink: system board overheat.
1 LONG, 7 short ORANGE blinks: RAID check running (LS Duo/WXL)
2 LONG, 1 short ORANGE blinks: RAID check running (LS Pro Duo?)
2 LONG, 2 short ORANGE blinks: RAID reconstruction, disk format or check running...
during disk formatting, a job named /usr/local/bin/hdd_format.sh is running.
the LEDs' status is controlled by small text files, containing "on" / "off" without the quotation marks, followed by 0Ah (linefeed character), located in /proc/buffalo/gpio/led/, that are called:
- power / power_blink - controls the upper LED lighting or blinking in green
the power LED usually blinks green during the powerup/boot/dhcp/shutdown process and lights on normal operation <-
- func / func_blink - controls the upper LED lighting or blinking in blue
- info / info_blink - controls the middle LED lighting or blinking in orange
the info LED usually blinks orange during RAID rebuilds.
- alarm / alarm_blink - controls the middle LED lighting or blinking in red
the alarm LED usually blinks or lights red during disk failures.
- eth - controls the lower LED lighting (and upon activity flashing) in green
assumably, this file will contain "on" whenever a network cable and switch is connected. this LED is also on for a second on the last stages of shutdown.
at the last stage of shutdown, just before powering off, the upper led will light for half a second in blue and the middle LED in red.
These control files are written by an utility called "/usr/local/sbin/miconapl" having the syntax:
miconapl -a <bz_imhere|bz_melody> <TEMPO> <TONES>
miconapl -a <bz_on> <boot|button|finepix|on3off3|on4off2(?)|on5off3|stop>
miconapl -a <fan_get_speed|int_get_switch_status>
miconapl -a <fan_set_speed> <stop|slow|fast|full>
miconapl -a <hdd_set_power> <hdd0|hdd1|all_on> [off]
miconapl -a <led_set_on_off|led_set_brink> [diag] [func] [info] [link] [power] [off]
miconapl -a <led_set_code_error|led_set_code_information> <1-99|off>
miconapl -a <led_set_cpu_mcon> <diag|power|off> [on]
miconapl -a <mcon_get_version>
miconapl -a <reboot|shutdown_wait>
miconapl [-b] -a <boot_end|boot_flash_ok>...where "diag" is for the middle red (alarm) LED, "func" is for the upper blue LED, "info" is for the middle orange LED, "link" is for the lower green (eth) LED (which cannot blink) and "power" ist for the upper green LED.
The led_set_on_off and led_set_brink commands, when invoked without parameters, will return the current LED and blink status in a syntax like:
led_link=not_supportmcon_get_version returns something like "LS-WSGL/R1Ver1.0" without the quotes.
Not all linkstation mainboards have a buzzer/beeper soldered on.
The fan speeds are approximately at "full":3500rpm, "fast": 2500rpm, "slow":1800rpm, "stop":0. Not all boards support fan regulation.
fan_get_speed returns "fan_rpm=Fine" if the fan is rotating.
BIOS Settings for AMD Athlon-64 and Phenom CPUs
Memory Interleaving accesses two (or an even number of) memory modules in parallel, so the load is distributed between two modules and, theoratically, the thruput doubles. BIOS will display "128-bit access" instead of "64-bit access" for DDRs. Memory Interleaving can be thought of being similar as what RAID-0 is for disk drives.
On an ASUS forum, ~~littlejoeh~~ reported on 2008-05-27 that, using 4x 1GB modules of DDR2-1066, on running the benchmark program SiSoft Sandra:
- Option "ECC Checking:Enabled" + "DCT Unganged: Disabled" = increased latency between CPU cores by 20%
- Option "ECC Checking:Enabled" + "DCT Unganged: Enabled/Always" = increased latency between CPU cores only 1%
- Option "Channel Interleaving:Disabled" - gave the worst performance results
- Option "Channel Interleaving:Address Bits 6" - if unganged, gave the second best results
- Option "Channel Interleaving:Address Bits 12" - not much difference to "Disabled"
- Option "Channel Interleaving:XOR of Address Bits [20:16,6]" - seems to impact negatively on stability
- Option "Channel Interleaving:XOR of Address Bits [20:16,9]" - seems to deliver best performance and stability